WASTEWATER GARDENS®
  Constructed Wetlands              


Humedales Artificiales
    (WWG)

JARDINES DEPURADORES DE AGUAS RESIDUALES

          JARDIN D'EPURATION DES EAUX USEES

Zones Humides Artificielles
 Schools
 Escuelas
 Ecoles
Hotel & Restaurants 
Hoteles & Restaurantes 
Hôtels & Restaurants 
Public parks 
Parques públicos 
Parcs publics 
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Overview
Introduction - understanding sewage water
The Technology & Legal Compliance
Water Treatment Levels & Treated Water Usage
Sound Economics of WWG - Using WWG as economic incentives
Advantages of WWG
Important Design Factor and Maintenance
 
Construction and installation Process
Our commitment & expertise
Presentation of the Planetary Coral Reef Foundation (PCRF)
What people say about WWG
Project references

Overview downloads

Photos and applicability in...
Homes
Resorts & Hotels
Schools & Research Centres
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Scientific Papers
 
Resources about constructed wetlands
 
 
 

Special announcements, workshops, conferences,...

Links

CONTACT





WATER TREATMENT LEVELS


Quality of Water Treatment & Use of Treated Water

  • Since Biosphere 2, over 100 WWG systems have been installed worldwide with purifying results still as effective:
    • 90-95% BOD reduction (Biological Oxygen Demand)
    • 90-95 % TSS reduction (Total Suspended Solid reduction)
    • 45-80% Nitrogen reduction - This ratio varies greatly in regards to local conditions and time of test.
    • 30-60% Phosphorus reduction - The same variability of ratio as in Nitrogen can be observed.
    • Over 98% Coliform bacteria reduction

  • If the effluent coming out of the WWG unit/s is to be further used for subsurface irrigation, the waters will know a secondary nutrient uptake process and thus meet even higher standards at final discharge.

  • While the treated water discharged from the Wastewater Gardens® is highly reduced in bacteria, it is not up to drinking standards as we normally don't use a final disinfectant such as chlorine or ultra-violet lights. This means that you can grow and eat fruits and some types of medicinal plants for example, or grow fodder for animals, but shouldn't plant leafy vegetables destined to human or animal consumption.
    The discharge water could also be used for flushing toilets but the cost of pumping it back into houses usually makes this option uneconomical.

Examples of laboratory water analyses of water froma WWG treatment unit (Birdwood Downs homestead, Derby, West Australia)


Another example of water laboratory analysis of a WWG treatment unit
(Krempna, Poland)


Parameter Influent concentration Effluent concentration Required level by
health authorities
DBO5 55,0 mg O2/l 11,0 mg O2/l 40 mg O2/l
COD 88,0 mg O2/l 32,0 mg O2/l 150 mg O2/l
TSS 74,5 mg/l 49,5 mg/l 50 mg/l
Total N 73,7 mg N/l 24,6 mg N/l 30 mg N/l
Total P 7,2 mg P/l 2,0 mg P/l 5 mg P/l


Comparison of principal parameters removal efficiency of Wastewater Gardens® subsurface flow systems with average North American surface and subsurface flow wetlands (based on data from early prototypes in Mexico) and EPA study.



Summary of Water Quality Tests at Emu Creek (Gulgagulganeng)
Wastewater Garden System, Kununurra, West Australia, August 2002 - May 2004


Parameter BOD-5
(Biochemical
Oxygen Demand)
mg/l
Total
Suspended Solids
(TSS)
mg/l
Total
Nitrogen
mg/l
Total
Phosphorus
mg/l
Average in Septic Tank 214 99 228 18
Average
Wastewater Garden
discharge
23 10 66 7.8
Percent Reduction 89% 90% 73% 58%

Tests performed at MPL Laboratories, Perth, an accredited testing facility. If evapotranspiration is 20% for above system, then wetland reduction of BOD is 91%, Reduction of TSS is 92%, reduction of nitrogen is 77% and reduction of P is 65%.


Average influent and effluent concentration (mg/l) and removal efficiencies (%) of organics (BOD5) in horizontal, subsurface flow constructed wetlands

Country Influent concentration Effluent concentration Efficiency
Czech Republic 87,2 10,5 88,0
Denmark and UK 97,0 13,1 86,5
North America 27,5 8,6 68,5
Germany - L. Saxony 248 42 83,0
Germany - Bavaria 106 21,6 79,6
Poland 7,65 4,10 46,4
Slovenia 107 11,3 89,0
Sweden 80,5 5,9 92,7


Average influent and effluent concentration (mg/l) and removal efficiencies (%) of suspended solids in horizontal, subsurface flow constructed wetlands

Country Influent concentration Effluent concentration Efficiency
Czech Republic 64,8 10,2 84,3
Denmark and UK 98,6 13,6 86,2
North America 48,2 10,3 78,6
Poland 140 38,6 77,4

Recent testing of early systems implemented along the Yucatan coast in Mexico indicated reduced levels of performance due to a lack of proper garden maintenance, with shading of understory plants, lack of aeration and possibly short-circuiting of wastewater. System performance can be improved through enhanced planting of the systems especially with robust and deep-rooted wetland species; regular pruning to prevent tall vegetation out-competing shorter species; and through reuse of the treated water for further irrigation. Newer systems have been designed with longer length: width ratios to increase wastewater residence time in the wetlands and with greater end-use of the water for increasing total system treatment and water reuse. For applications requiring even higher initial treatment standards, use of "vertical flow" wetlands with dosing siphons or pumps to batch load an initial wetland compartment will increase aeration and thus boost treatment levels.